Sun. Apr 14th, 2024

The Appeal of Collectible Card Games

  • Collectible card games (TCGs) have been a popular form of entertainment for decades, offering players a unique combination of strategy, competition, and fun.
  • One of the primary appeals of TCGs is the ability to collect and trade cards, which allows players to build unique decks and customize their gaming experience.
  • TCGs also offer a social aspect, as players can engage in friendly or competitive matches with others, whether in person or online.
  • Another appeal of TCGs is the potential for skill development and improvement, as players can learn new strategies and techniques to improve their gameplay.
  • The digital age has also brought about new ways to play TCGs, with online platforms and mobile apps offering convenience and accessibility for players.
  • Overall, the appeal of TCGs lies in their ability to provide a fun and engaging experience for players of all ages and skill levels, making them a popular choice for gamers and collectors alike.

Popular TCGs and Their Mechanics

  • Magic: The Gathering
    • Collectible cards featuring various creatures, spells, and artifacts
    • Players use a combination of mana and land cards to cast spells and summon creatures
    • Dynamic gameplay with a vast array of strategies and deck building options
  • Pokémon Trading Card Game
    • Features iconic Pokémon characters and their respective abilities
    • Players use energy cards to power up their Pokémon and attack their opponent’s Pokémon
    • Focuses on strategy and tactics, with various game modes and expansions
  • Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game
    • Includes monsters, spells, and traps that players can use to defeat their opponents
    • Players use a combination of monster cards and spell/trap cards to create a balanced deck
    • Offers a variety of strategies and deck building options, with frequent releases of new cards and sets
  • KeyForge
    • Unique archaeopteryx-themed cards with various abilities and effects
    • Players use a one-of-a-kind deck that they create by choosing cards from their collection
    • Encourages creativity and strategy, with a focus on deck building and experimentation
  • Hearthstone
    • Features popular characters and gameplay mechanics from the Warcraft universe
    • Players use a combination of minion cards and spell cards to defeat their opponents
    • Offers a variety of game modes and formats, with frequent updates and expansions.

Why Choose a TCG in 2023

  • The allure of TCGs: Exploring the appeal of Trading Card Games
    • A rich history of TCGs: From Magic: The Gathering to Pokémon
      • The birth of TCGs: How these games evolved into cultural phenomena
      • Innovations and adaptations: How TCGs have changed over the years
    • A world of possibilities: The diverse gameplay styles and mechanics of TCGs
      • Collectible cards: The heart of TCGs and the strategic depth they offer
      • Expanding horizons: The many universes and themes of TCGs
    • The community experience: Why TCGs bring people together
      • Local game stores: The hubs of TCG culture
      • Tournaments and events: The competitive and social aspects of TCGs
    • A timeless pastime: The enduring appeal of TCGs
      • Passing the torch: How TCGs have captured the imagination of generations
      • A vibrant present: The ongoing popularity of TCGs in the digital age
  • Embracing the future of TCGs: Why 2023 is the perfect time to dive in
    • A global phenomenon: The worldwide impact of TCGs
      • The rise of online play: How TCGs have adapted to the digital realm
      • A unifying passion: The shared love for TCGs across cultures and borders
    • The age of innovation: How new TCGs are pushing the boundaries of game design
      • Unique mechanics and themes: The creativity driving the TCG landscape
      • Adapting to modern tastes: The evolution of TCGs in response to player preferences
    • The resurgence of physical TCGs: Why some players are returning to the roots of the genre
      • The tactile experience: The allure of physical cards and gameplay
      • A new generation of collectors: How younger players are embracing the hobby
    • A new era of competition: The growth of esports and competitive TCGs
      • The professional scene: The rise of professional TCG players and tournaments
      • The future of competitive TCGs: How the genre is shaping the world of esports
    • A world of choice: The wide array of TCGs to explore in 2023
      • Old favorites: The timeless appeal of classic TCGs
      • New releases: The exciting lineup of upcoming TCGs
    • A journey of discovery: Why exploring the world of TCGs in 2023 is a must
      • Personal growth: The lessons and values TCGs can teach
      • The joy of exploration: The thrill of discovering new games and communities
    • The TCG experience: A unique and rewarding hobby for players of all ages
      • Collecting and trading: The thrill of the chase and the satisfaction of completing a set
      • Strategic gameplay: The intellectual challenge of outwitting opponents
      • Social connections: The friendships and communities that TCGs foster

Are you looking to spice up your gaming experience in 2023? Then you’re in luck! Trading Card Games (TCGs) are back and better than ever before. With so many options to choose from, it can be tough to decide which TCG is right for you. That’s why we’ve put together this comprehensive guide to help you explore the best TCG options for 2023. Whether you’re a seasoned gamer or a newcomer to the world of TCGs, this guide has something for everyone. So, get ready to embark on an exciting journey and discover the perfect TCG for you in 2023!

Choosing the Right TCG for You

Factors to Consider When Selecting a TCG

When selecting a Trading Card Game (TCG) in 2023, there are several factors to consider to ensure that you choose the right game for your needs and preferences. These factors include:

  • Game Mechanics: The mechanics of the game can greatly impact your enjoyment of the game. Consider whether you prefer games with complex strategies or simple, easy-to-learn mechanics.
  • Theme and Genre: TCGs can be based on a wide range of themes and genres, such as fantasy, sci-fi, horror, sports, and more. Consider which themes and genres you enjoy the most and look for TCGs that align with those interests.
  • Player Community: A strong player community can greatly enhance your TCG experience. Consider whether you prefer games with active, competitive communities or more casual, laid-back play.
  • Card Rarity and Collectibility: Some TCGs feature rare cards that can greatly impact gameplay and increase in value over time. Consider whether you enjoy the thrill of the hunt for rare cards or prefer a more straightforward gameplay experience.
  • Learning Curve: Some TCGs have steep learning curves, while others are more accessible to new players. Consider your level of experience with TCGs and whether you want to invest time in learning a new game.
  • Expansion and Support: Consider whether the game has a strong history of expansions and support from its developer, as this can greatly impact the longevity of the game and the availability of new cards and content.

By considering these factors, you can ensure that you choose a TCG that aligns with your interests and preferences, and that you will enjoy playing in 2023 and beyond.

Recommended TCGs Based on Different Criteria

When choosing a Trading Card Game (TCG) in 2023, it’s important to consider different criteria that suit your preferences and gaming style. Here are some recommended TCGs based on various criteria:

1. Beginner-Friendly TCGs

For those new to the world of TCGs, it’s best to start with beginner-friendly games that are easy to learn and play. Some recommended TCGs for beginners include:

  • Pokémon TCG: With simple gameplay mechanics and a wide range of cards to choose from, Pokémon TCG is a great introduction to the world of TCGs.
  • Magic: The Gathering: While Magic: The Gathering has a steep learning curve, there are beginner-friendly decks and formats that can help new players get started.
  • Yu-Gi-Oh! TCG: With its unique gameplay mechanics and strategic depth, Yu-Gi-Oh! TCG is a great choice for beginners looking for a challenge.

2. Strategy-Focused TCGs

For players who enjoy complex strategies and deep gameplay mechanics, the following TCGs are recommended:

  • Legend of the Five Rings: The Card Game (L5R: TCG): L5R: TCG is a strategy-heavy game that requires players to carefully manage their resources and build decks around specific themes.
  • Kingdom Death: Monster (KDM): KDM is a challenging TCG that requires players to make difficult decisions and adapt to changing game conditions.
  • Twilight Imperium: Fourth Edition (TI4): TI4 is a political and military strategy game that requires players to navigate complex systems and make alliances to achieve victory.

3. Digital TCGs

For players who prefer playing TCGs digitally, the following games are recommended:

  • Hearthstone: Hearthstone is a popular digital TCG that features familiar characters and gameplay mechanics from the Warcraft universe.
  • Shadowverse: Shadowverse is a Japanese digital TCG that features unique card art and gameplay mechanics, making it a great choice for players looking for something different.
  • Majors Arcana: Majors Arcana is a digital TCG that combines elements of traditional TCGs with collectible elements, making it a great choice for players who enjoy both types of games.

4. Physical TCGs

For players who prefer the tactile experience of playing with physical cards, the following TCGs are recommended:

  • Star Wars: Destiny: Star Wars: Destiny is a physical TCG that features characters and themes from the Star Wars universe, making it a great choice for fans of the franchise.
  • KeyForge: KeyForge is a unique physical TCG that features a single-deck gameplay format, making it a great choice for players who enjoy variety and unpredictability.
  • Villainous: Villainous is a physical TCG that allows players to take on the role of famous Disney villains, making it a great choice for fans of the Disney franchise.

By considering these different criteria, players can find the TCG that best suits their preferences and gaming style.

Top TCGs to Consider in 2023

1. Magic: The Gathering

Magic: The Gathering has been a beloved trading card game for over three decades. Its rich storyline, strategic gameplay, and iconic cards have captivated gamers of all ages. As a top choice for TCG enthusiasts, here’s what makes Magic: The Gathering a standout option for 2023:

Rich and Intricate Storyline

Magic: The Gathering boasts a rich and intricate storyline that has evolved over the years. The game’s lore is woven into the cards themselves, offering players a unique and immersive experience. Each card represents a character, creature, or artifact from the game’s multiverse, and their abilities reflect their strengths and weaknesses.

Dynamic Gameplay

The gameplay of Magic: The Gathering is highly dynamic, with countless strategies and deck configurations to explore. Players can build decks around specific themes, such as monsters, artifacts, or enchantments, and utilize various game mechanics to gain an advantage over their opponents. With each game, players must navigate complex decision-making processes, making it a game of both skill and strategy.

Iconic Cards

Some of the most iconic cards in Magic: The Gathering include legendary creatures like Black Lotus and Ancient Imperiosaur, powerful artifacts like Moxen and Sol Ring, and game-changing spells like Time Walk and Mind’s Desire. These cards are highly sought after by collectors and can fetch high prices in the market.

Active and Supportive Community

Magic: The Gathering has a passionate and supportive community of players and collectors. The game’s popularity has spawned numerous events, tournaments, and conventions, allowing players to connect with fellow enthusiasts and compete in high-stakes matches. The game’s strategic depth and extensive card pool ensure that there is always something new to discover and master.

In conclusion, Magic: The Gathering remains a top choice for TCG enthusiasts in 2023. Its rich storyline, dynamic gameplay, iconic cards, and active community make it a compelling choice for both new and experienced players alike.

2. Pokémon Trading Card Game

A Brief History of the Pokémon Trading Card Game

The Pokémon Trading Card Game (PTCG) was first released in 1996 by Wizards of the Coast, the same company that produces the popular Magic: The Gathering TCG. Since then, it has become one of the most popular TCGs in the world, with millions of players and fans worldwide.

How to Play the Pokémon Trading Card Game

The Pokémon TCG is a two-player game where each player creates a deck of 60 cards consisting of Pokémon, Energy cards, and Trainer cards. The objective of the game is to reduce the other player’s Health Points (HP) to zero by using various Pokémon attacks and abilities.

Players take turns drawing cards, attacking with their Pokémon, and using Trainer cards to enhance their deck or disrupt their opponent’s strategy. The game also features a unique mechanic called “Evolution” where certain Pokémon can evolve into more powerful forms by discarding certain cards from their hand.

The Art of Building a Pokémon Deck

Building a successful Pokémon deck requires careful consideration of the available cards and understanding of the game’s mechanics. Players must choose a combination of Pokémon, Energy cards, and Trainer cards that work together to achieve their desired strategy.

There are many different deck archetypes in the Pokémon TCG, including the popular “Rock-Paper-Scissors” deck, the aggressive “Beast” deck, and the control-oriented “Mill” deck. Players can also choose to build around specific themes or Pokémon, such as the popular “Mewtwo” or “Charizard” decks.

Popular Pokémon TCG Tournaments and Events

The Pokémon TCG has a thriving competitive scene, with numerous tournaments and events held worldwide. The most prestigious tournament is the World Championships, which attracts top players from around the globe.

Other notable events include the North American World Championship Qualifiers, the European Championships, and the Asian Championships. There are also many smaller local tournaments and events that players can participate in to hone their skills and compete against other players.

Where to Buy Pokémon Trading Card Game Products

The Pokémon TCG is widely available at various retailers, both online and in-store. Popular online retailers include Amazon, eBay, and the official Pokémon Center Online Store. Physical retailers include game stores, toy stores, and hobby shops.

Players can also purchase booster packs, which contain random cards from the latest set, or collector’s tins, which contain a more limited selection of cards and often include a rare foil card. Additionally, some retailers offer pre-constructed theme decks that are ready to play right out of the box.

Overall, the Pokémon Trading Card Game is a classic TCG with a rich history and a dedicated fanbase. Whether you’re a seasoned player or a newcomer to the world of TCGs, the Pokémon TCG is definitely worth considering in 2023.

3. Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game

The Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game (TCG) has been a beloved and popular choice among fans of trading card games for many years. Created in 1999, the game is based on the popular manga and anime series, Yu-Gi-Oh! The game features characters and monsters from the series, and players can build decks and engage in battles with their opponents.

One of the unique aspects of the Yu-Gi-Oh! TCG is its use of special cards called “Trap Cards.” These cards allow players to disrupt their opponent’s strategy and turn the tide of the game. Additionally, the game features a wide variety of monsters, each with their own unique attributes and abilities, making each game feel fresh and exciting.

In 2023, the Yu-Gi-Oh! TCG will continue to be a top choice for players, with new sets and cards being released throughout the year. Players can expect to see new and powerful monsters, as well as new strategies and ways to play the game. Additionally, the game will continue to be supported by a large and dedicated community of players, making it easy to find opponents and play the game both online and in-person.

If you’re looking for a trading card game with a strong sense of community and a lot of variety, the Yu-Gi-Oh! TCG is definitely worth considering in 2023.

4. KeyForge

KeyForge: A Unique Blend of Strategy and Luck

KeyForge is a popular and innovative TCG (Trading Card Game) that has garnered significant attention since its release in 2018. It is the first TCG to use the “Un-Game” mechanic, which allows players to enjoy a unique gaming experience that combines elements of strategy and luck. Developed by Richard Garfield, the creator of Magic: The Gathering, KeyForge has a compelling storyline and engaging gameplay that has captured the hearts of both seasoned and casual gamers alike.


KeyForge features a two-player format where each player creates a deck of cards by “forging” their own unique deck of 40 cards. Players then take turns playing cards and casting spells to attack their opponent’s life total or to disrupt their opponent’s plans. The game ends when one player’s life total drops to zero.

One of the key aspects of KeyForge is the use of “affinity” cards, which are themed groups of cards that share a common symbol. Players can include a mix of affinity cards in their deck to enhance their strategy and provide a more dynamic gaming experience.


The world of KeyForge is called “Medusa,” and it is a fantastical realm filled with powerful beings, magical artifacts, and ancient mysteries. The story revolves around the struggle between the “Mages” and the “Skythiryers,” two powerful factions locked in an eternal battle for control of Medusa.

Players take on the role of Mages, who are charged with defending their realm from the relentless onslaught of the Skythiryers. As they progress through the game, players will uncover hidden secrets, forge powerful alliances, and discover new technologies to aid them in their quest.

Pros and Cons


  • Engaging storyline with a unique and innovative gameplay mechanic.
  • Wide range of powerful cards and affinity groups to create customized decks.
  • Easy to learn, but challenging to master, making it accessible to both new and experienced players.


  • Reliance on luck can make some games feel unpredictable and frustrating for strategic players.
  • Limited player base compared to more established TCGs, which may impact the availability of opponents for casual play.


KeyForge offers a unique and engaging TCG experience that combines elements of strategy and luck. Its innovative gameplay mechanics and captivating storyline make it a great option for players looking for a fresh take on the traditional TCG format. While it may not be the best choice for players who prefer more strategic and predictable games, KeyForge is definitely worth considering for those who enjoy a mix of luck and skill in their gaming experiences.

5. Hearthstone

Hearthstone is a popular collectible card game (TCG) that has been around since 2014. Developed by Blizzard Entertainment, this game is based on the Warcraft universe and features a variety of characters and spells from the series. It has a massive player base, with millions of active players worldwide.


In Hearthstone, players take on the role of a hero, each with their unique abilities and cards. The objective of the game is to reduce the opponent’s health to zero by using a combination of minions, spells, and hero powers. Players start with a deck of 30 cards and can use in-game currency or real money to purchase additional cards to further customize their decks.

One of the key aspects of Hearthstone is its class system. There are nine classes in total, each with its unique set of cards and playstyle. These classes include Warrior, Hunter, Rogue, Druid, Shaman, Mage, Warlock, Paladin, Priest, and Demon Hunter.

Strategies and Deck Building

Hearthstone’s strategic depth comes from its extensive card pool and the ability to create unique decks. Players can choose from over 2000 cards, with new sets being released regularly. The game also features a “Hearthstone Lab” mode, which allows players to experiment with different deck combinations and find the best strategies.

In addition to the in-game currency, players can also purchase additional cards with real money. This system, known as “microtransactions,” has been a source of controversy, but Blizzard has made efforts to balance the game and ensure that players who do not spend money can still compete.


Hearthstone is a highly accessible and engaging TCG that is suitable for both casual and competitive players. Its deep strategic gameplay, extensive card pool, and regular updates make it a top choice for players looking for a TCG in 2023. Whether you prefer aggressive strategies or prefer to play defensively, Hearthstone has something for everyone.

6. Flesh and Blood

  • Flesh and Blood: A Unique Blend of Tabletop and Digital Gaming
    • Flesh and Blood (F&B) is a popular trading card game (TCG) that offers a unique gaming experience by combining elements of both tabletop and digital gaming.
    • The game is designed by a team of experienced game designers, including veterans of the Magic: The Gathering franchise, and is published by IronOak Games.
    • The game features stunning artwork and an immersive storyline that takes players on a journey through the fantastical world of F&B.
  • Gameplay Mechanics
    • F&B uses a deck-building system that allows players to create custom decks by selecting cards from different sets, each with its own unique abilities and strengths.
    • The game features a variety of mechanics, including combat, resource management, and spell casting, that provide players with a diverse range of strategies and tactics.
    • Players can also participate in special events and challenges, such as the World Championship, to test their skills and compete against other players from around the world.
  • Digital Adaptation
    • One of the standout features of F&B is its digital adaptation, which allows players to play the game on their computers or mobile devices.
    • The digital version of the game features a built-in deck builder, in-game tutorials, and a robust online community, making it easy for new players to jump into the game and compete with others.
    • The digital version also allows players to collect and trade virtual cards, providing an additional layer of depth and strategy to the game.
  • Accessibility and Community
    • F&B is an accessible game that appeals to both casual and competitive players, with a welcoming community of players from around the world.
    • The game’s developers have actively engaged with the community, regularly releasing updates and new content to keep the game fresh and exciting.
    • Additionally, the game’s developers have also created a robust tournament scene, with regular events and competitions that provide players with the opportunity to test their skills and compete against other players.
  • Conclusion
    • Flesh and Blood is a unique and engaging TCG that offers a diverse range of strategies and tactics, combined with a digital adaptation that makes it easy for players to jump into the game and compete with others.
    • With its immersive storyline, stunning artwork, and accessible gameplay, F&B is a great choice for players looking for a TCG that offers a unique and engaging gaming experience.

Making Your Decision

Choosing the right TCG (Trading Card Game) can be a daunting task, especially with so many options available. Here are some factors to consider when making your decision:

1. Your Gaming Style

The first thing to consider is your preferred gaming style. Are you a competitive player who enjoys a fast-paced game, or do you prefer a more strategic, slow-paced game? Some TCGs are geared towards a specific type of player, so it’s important to choose one that fits your playstyle.

2. Availability of Players

Another important factor to consider is the availability of players. Some TCGs have a small player base, which can make it difficult to find opponents to play against. Look for TCGs with a large and active player base to ensure that you can always find someone to play with.

3. Cost

TCGs can be expensive, with booster packs and cards costing anywhere from a few dollars to hundreds of dollars. Consider your budget when choosing a TCG, and make sure that you can afford to play the game without breaking the bank.

4. Theme and Setting

Finally, consider the theme and setting of the TCG. Do you prefer fantasy, sci-fi, or something else entirely? Choose a TCG that fits your interests and that you will enjoy playing.

By considering these factors, you can make an informed decision and choose the best TCG for you in 2023.

Staying Up-to-Date with the TCG Community

In order to make informed decisions about which TCGs to invest in for 2023, it is essential to stay up-to-date with the TCG community. This includes following relevant forums, blogs, and social media accounts to stay informed about the latest developments, releases, and trends in the TCG world. Here are some key aspects to keep in mind when staying up-to-date with the TCG community:

  • Following TCG-related forums and blogs: These platforms provide valuable insights and discussions about various TCGs, including their strategies, card reviews, and upcoming releases. Some popular forums and blogs include Cardboard Connection, Pojo’s Card Talk, and MTG Goldfish.
  • Engaging with the TCG community on social media: Platforms like Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook offer a wealth of information about TCGs, including news, spoilers, and community opinions. By following popular TCG accounts, such as ChannelFireball, SCG, and StarCityGames, you can stay up-to-date on the latest happenings in the TCG world.
  • Attending TCG events and conventions: Attending TCG events and conventions allows you to interact with other players, learn about new releases, and gain a deeper understanding of the TCG scene. Some popular events include Grand Prix tournaments, Pro Tours, and Gen Con.
  • Participating in TCG discussions and debates: Engaging in discussions and debates about TCGs with other players can help you broaden your perspective and gain new insights. Whether it’s through online forums, Discord channels, or local game stores, participating in these discussions can be a valuable way to stay informed and connected with the TCG community.
  • Monitoring TCG marketplaces and price trends: Keeping an eye on TCG marketplaces and price trends can help you make informed decisions about which cards to invest in or trade. Websites like TCGplayer, SCG, and eBay offer valuable insights into the current market value of TCG cards.

By staying up-to-date with the TCG community, you can make informed decisions about which TCGs to invest in for 2023 and beyond. Remember to engage with others, ask questions, and participate in discussions to gain a deeper understanding of the TCG world and its many facets.

Exploring Other Forms of Entertainment in 2023

As we delve into the world of trading card games (TCGs) in 2023, it’s important to recognize that TCGs are not the only form of entertainment available. There are a variety of other activities that individuals can engage in to satisfy their leisure time needs. Some of these alternatives include:

  • Video Games: Video games have come a long way since their inception and now offer a wide range of genres and experiences. From first-person shooters to role-playing games, there’s something for everyone. Many video games also offer multiplayer options, allowing players to connect with others from around the world.
  • Board Games: Board games have experienced a resurgence in recent years, with new and innovative games constantly being released. From strategy games to party games, board games offer a unique and engaging experience for players of all ages.
  • Cards Against Humanity: This popular party game is a great alternative to traditional TCGs. It involves players selecting cards with various phrases and using them to create humorous and often inappropriate sentences.
  • Pokémon Go: This augmented reality game has taken the world by storm, allowing players to catch and battle virtual creatures in their real-world environment.
  • Sports: Participating in sports or attending sporting events is a great way to stay active and enjoy the excitement of competition.

While these alternative forms of entertainment can be just as enjoyable as TCGs, they do not offer the same level of strategic depth and collectibility that TCGs provide. TCGs offer a unique and engaging experience that is hard to replicate with other forms of entertainment.


1. What is a TCG?

A Trading Card Game (TCG) is a type of collectible card game where players use decks of cards to simulate battles or duels. The objective of the game is to defeat the opponent’s cards by attacking them with creatures or spells, while also protecting one’s own cards.

2. What are some popular TCGs in 2023?

Some popular TCGs in 2023 include Magic: The Gathering, Pokemon TCG, Yu-Gi-Oh!, and Cardfight!! Vanguard. These games have been around for many years and have large communities of players.

3. How do I get started with playing a TCG?

To get started with playing a TCG, you will need to purchase a starter deck for the game you choose. Many TCGs also have booster packs available for purchase, which contain random cards to help you build your deck. It’s important to learn the rules of the game and understand how to play before jumping into competitive play.

4. How much does it cost to play a TCG?

The cost of playing a TCG can vary depending on the game and the specific cards you choose to use. Starter decks are typically around $10-$20, while booster packs can range from $3-$10 each. As you progress and start building your own decks, the cost can increase significantly.

5. Where can I find other players to play with?

You can find other players to play with by joining local gaming stores or online communities dedicated to the specific TCG you are interested in. Many gaming stores host regular tournaments and events for players to participate in. Online communities, such as forums or social media groups, can also be a great way to connect with other players and find games to play.

6. How do I improve my skills in a TCG?

Improving your skills in a TCG involves learning the rules and strategies of the game, as well as practicing and playing against other players. You can also study other players’ decks and tactics to get ideas for your own gameplay. Additionally, reading strategy guides and watching videos can help you learn new techniques and improve your skills.

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