Sat. Jun 22nd, 2024

School rankings have become a hot topic in the world of education. Many people believe that ranking schools is a crucial aspect of evaluating the quality of education. But why do we rank schools? What is the importance of school rankings? In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the reasons behind ranking schools and the factors that influence school rankings. We will also discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using school rankings as a measure of educational quality. Whether you are a parent, student, or educator, understanding the importance of school rankings is essential to making informed decisions about education. So, let’s dive in and discover why school rankings matter.

Understanding School Rankings

What are school rankings?

School rankings are a tool used to evaluate and compare educational institutions based on various criteria. These rankings are typically based on factors such as academic performance, student satisfaction, faculty quality, and research output. School rankings can be found at both the national and international levels, and they are often used by students, parents, and educators as a guide when making decisions about which school to attend or which school to send their children to.

School rankings can be further divided into two categories: overall rankings and subject-specific rankings. Overall rankings take into account a wide range of factors and provide an overall assessment of the school’s performance. Subject-specific rankings, on the other hand, focus on a particular subject area, such as engineering or business, and provide an assessment of the school’s performance in that specific area.

It is important to note that school rankings are not without controversy. Some argue that they can be misleading and that they may not accurately reflect the quality of education at a particular school. Others argue that rankings can be useful in providing a general sense of the relative strengths and weaknesses of different schools. Regardless of one’s opinion on the matter, school rankings are a tool that many people use when making decisions about education, and it is important to understand what they are and how they are used.

How are school rankings calculated?

School rankings are typically calculated based on a combination of factors, including academic performance, student diversity, teacher quality, and other variables. These factors are often weighted differently depending on the ranking system, and may be evaluated through a variety of metrics, such as standardized test scores, graduation rates, and college acceptance rates.

Some of the most commonly used ranking systems include:

  • U.S. News & World Report’s “Best Colleges” rankings
  • Forbes’ “America’s Top Colleges” rankings
  • The Princeton Review’s “Best 384 Colleges” rankings
  • Washington Monthly’s “Best Colleges for Adult Learners” rankings

Each of these systems has its own methodology and criteria for evaluating schools, and some may place more emphasis on certain factors than others. For example, U.S. News & World Report’s rankings place a heavy emphasis on academic reputation and selectivity, while Washington Monthly’s rankings focus more on social mobility and community service.

It’s important to note that while school rankings can provide useful information for students and parents, they should not be the sole factor in choosing a school. Other factors, such as personal preferences, financial aid packages, and individual academic programs, should also be taken into consideration.

The Benefits of School Rankings

Key takeaway: School rankings are a tool used to evaluate and compare educational institutions based on various criteria such as academic performance, student satisfaction, faculty quality, and research output. They are calculated using a combination of factors including academic performance, student diversity, teacher quality, and other variables, and are typically used by students, parents, and educators as a guide when making decisions about which school to attend or which school to send their children to. While school rankings can provide useful information for students and parents, they should not be the sole factor in choosing a school. School rankings are a driving force for educational institutions to strive for excellence, as they motivate schools to enhance their performance and overall quality of education, provide a standard for comparison, and promote accountability. However, school rankings are not without controversy, as they can be misleading and may not accurately reflect the quality of education at a particular school. Additionally, the use of quantitative data in school rankings can lead to a narrow focus on test scores and graduation rates, at the expense of other important factors. It is important to recognize the limitations of school rankings and consider other factors when evaluating the quality of education a school provides.

Helping students make informed decisions

School rankings are a valuable tool for students when making decisions about their education. With so many schools to choose from, it can be overwhelming to decide which one is the best fit. School rankings provide a standardized way to compare schools based on a variety of factors, such as academic performance, student satisfaction, and alumni success. By providing this information, school rankings help students make informed decisions about their future academic pursuits.

One of the key benefits of school rankings is that they allow students to compare schools objectively. Instead of relying on subjective opinions or personal experiences, students can use school rankings to compare schools based on concrete data. This can help students make more informed decisions about which schools are likely to provide the best education for their needs and goals.

In addition to helping students compare schools objectively, school rankings can also provide a sense of accountability for schools. Schools that are ranked highly are more likely to maintain their reputation and continue to perform well, as they are aware that their performance is being scrutinized. This can lead to a better overall educational experience for students, as schools are more likely to strive for excellence in order to maintain their rankings.

Overall, school rankings are an important tool for students when making decisions about their education. By providing objective comparisons and promoting accountability, school rankings can help students make informed decisions and find the best school for their needs and goals.

Encouraging schools to improve

School rankings serve as a driving force for educational institutions to strive for excellence. By providing a measurable standard, rankings motivate schools to enhance their performance and overall quality of education. This section will delve into the ways school rankings encourage improvement in schools.

  • Competition among institutions:
    • Rankings create a competitive environment among schools, prompting them to outperform one another. This competition drives schools to invest in resources and innovative teaching methods to improve their standing in the rankings.
  • Identifying areas of improvement:
    • Rankings offer a comprehensive analysis of a school’s strengths and weaknesses, enabling administrators and educators to identify areas that require improvement. By addressing these deficiencies, schools can enhance their overall performance and climb the rankings.
  • Encouraging accountability:
    • School rankings hold educational institutions accountable for their performance, fostering a culture of continuous improvement. Schools are compelled to assess their practices and implement necessary changes to boost their rankings and provide a better education for their students.
  • Attracting funding and resources:
    • Higher rankings can lead to increased funding and recognition, enabling schools to invest in facilities, technology, and faculty. This, in turn, contributes to the overall improvement of the school and its ability to provide a quality education.
  • Boosting prestige and reputation:
    • Improved rankings can enhance a school’s prestige and reputation, attracting more students and resources. This positive feedback loop can drive schools to continuously improve, as they strive to maintain or surpass their current standing in the rankings.

By promoting competition, identifying areas of improvement, fostering accountability, attracting resources, and boosting prestige, school rankings play a crucial role in encouraging schools to strive for excellence and improve the quality of education they provide.

Providing a standard for comparison

One of the key benefits of school rankings is that they provide a standard for comparison. By ranking schools based on various factors, such as academic performance, student satisfaction, and alumni success, prospective students and their families can compare different schools and make informed decisions about where to apply and attend.

Additionally, having a standard for comparison can help schools themselves identify areas where they need to improve. For example, if a school is ranked lower than its peers in a particular category, such as student-teacher ratio or campus diversity, it may be motivated to make changes and invest in initiatives that will improve its ranking in the future.

Moreover, having a standard for comparison can also help schools identify their strengths and areas of excellence. For instance, a school that ranks highly in a particular subject area, such as engineering or arts, may use this information to promote its strengths and attract more students to its programs.

Overall, the provision of a standard for comparison through school rankings can help prospective students make informed decisions, motivate schools to improve, and promote areas of excellence.

Criticisms of School Rankings

The limitations of quantitative data

While school rankings provide valuable information for prospective students and their families, they are not without their limitations. One of the most significant limitations of school rankings is the reliance on quantitative data.

Quantitative data, such as standardized test scores and graduation rates, provide a numerical representation of a school’s performance. However, this data has its limitations. For example, standardized test scores are often influenced by factors outside of the school’s control, such as a student’s socioeconomic status or prior academic achievement. Similarly, graduation rates can be impacted by factors such as a school’s size or the availability of resources.

Moreover, quantitative data does not provide a complete picture of a school’s academic environment. It does not take into account factors such as the quality of the faculty, the availability of extracurricular activities, or the overall campus culture. As a result, school rankings based solely on quantitative data may not accurately reflect the quality of education a school provides.

In addition, the use of quantitative data in school rankings can lead to a narrow focus on test scores and graduation rates, at the expense of other important factors. This can discourage schools from prioritizing other aspects of their students’ education, such as creativity, critical thinking, and social-emotional learning.

Therefore, while quantitative data can provide useful information about a school’s performance, it is important to recognize its limitations and consider other factors when evaluating the quality of education a school provides.

The potential for bias and manipulation

While school rankings can provide valuable information to students and parents, there are also criticisms surrounding their use. One of the main concerns is the potential for bias and manipulation.

Some argue that school rankings can be influenced by factors outside of academic performance, such as the socioeconomic status of the student body or the resources available to the school. For example, a school in a wealthy neighborhood may have access to better facilities and more resources than a school in a low-income area, which could artificially inflate its ranking.

Furthermore, some schools may manipulate their data in order to improve their ranking. This can include factors such as excluding low-performing students from standardized tests or falsifying data. While there are measures in place to prevent this type of behavior, it is still a concern that can impact the accuracy of school rankings.

It is important to note that not all school rankings are created equal, and some may be more prone to bias and manipulation than others. It is essential for students and parents to do their own research and consider multiple sources when evaluating school rankings. Additionally, it is important to understand that school rankings should not be the sole factor in making a decision about which school to attend. Other factors, such as individual student needs and interests, should also be taken into account.

The negative impact on education policy

One of the main criticisms of school rankings is the negative impact they can have on education policy. School rankings often place a disproportionate emphasis on standardized test scores and other quantitative measures, which can lead to a narrow focus on these metrics at the expense of other important aspects of education. This can create a culture of “teaching to the test,” where teachers and schools prioritize test preparation over more holistic approaches to education.

Additionally, the use of rankings can create a competitive environment among schools, which can lead to a focus on boosting scores and rankings rather than on providing a well-rounded education. This can lead to a narrowing of the curriculum and a focus on test-taking strategies rather than on critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Furthermore, the use of rankings can also perpetuate inequalities in the education system. Schools with more resources, such as access to better facilities and more qualified teachers, tend to perform better on standardized tests and therefore rank higher. This can create a cycle of advantage for wealthier schools and disadvantage for poorer schools, further entrenching educational disparities.

Overall, the negative impact of school rankings on education policy highlights the need for a more nuanced and comprehensive approach to evaluating and improving schools. Rather than relying solely on quantitative measures, a more holistic approach that takes into account a range of factors, including student well-being, community engagement, and creativity, is needed to ensure that all students have access to a high-quality education.

Alternatives to Traditional School Rankings

Holistic assessments of schools

In recent years, there has been growing criticism of traditional school rankings, which rely heavily on standardized test scores and other quantitative measures. As a result, many educators and policymakers are turning to alternative assessment methods that take a more holistic approach to evaluating schools.

One such approach is the use of holistic assessments, which take into account a wide range of factors beyond standardized test scores. These factors can include things like the quality of teaching, the diversity of the student body, the availability of extracurricular activities, and the overall culture and climate of the school.

There are several advantages to using holistic assessments of schools. For one, they provide a more complete picture of what a school has to offer, and can help families make more informed decisions about where to send their children. They also take into account the unique needs and circumstances of each school, rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all approach.

Moreover, holistic assessments can help schools identify areas where they can improve, and can provide a roadmap for how to do so. By looking at a wide range of factors, schools can identify strengths and weaknesses, and develop targeted strategies for improvement.

Overall, the use of holistic assessments of schools is a promising alternative to traditional rankings, and has the potential to provide a more accurate and meaningful picture of what schools have to offer.

Multi-dimensional measures of success

In recent years, there has been growing recognition of the limitations of traditional school rankings that rely solely on standardized test scores or other narrow metrics. A more comprehensive approach to measuring school success is needed that takes into account a wider range of factors that contribute to student well-being and long-term success. This section will explore the concept of multi-dimensional measures of success and their potential benefits.

Multi-dimensional measures of success refer to the use of multiple indicators to evaluate school performance, rather than relying solely on a single metric such as test scores. These indicators may include factors such as student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student-teacher ratios, access to resources, extracurricular activities, and community involvement. By taking a more holistic approach to evaluating schools, policymakers and educators can gain a more nuanced understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of individual schools and identify areas for improvement.

One of the main advantages of multi-dimensional measures of success is that they can provide a more accurate picture of school quality, particularly for schools that serve diverse student populations. Traditional rankings based solely on test scores can often favor schools that serve affluent students or those who are already academically advanced, overlooking the achievements of schools that serve lower-income or minority students who may face additional challenges. By taking into account a wider range of factors, multi-dimensional measures can help to identify schools that are truly serving the needs of all students and providing a well-rounded education.

Another benefit of multi-dimensional measures of success is that they can encourage schools to focus on a broader range of outcomes beyond academic achievement. While test scores are an important factor in school success, they are not the only measure of student achievement. By considering factors such as student engagement, social-emotional learning, and community involvement, schools can be encouraged to prioritize a more well-rounded approach to education that prepares students for success in all areas of life.

Despite the potential benefits of multi-dimensional measures of success, there are also some challenges associated with implementing such measures. One of the main challenges is the need to develop reliable and valid indicators that can accurately capture the complexity of school performance. This requires careful consideration of the factors to be included in the measures, as well as the use of appropriate data collection and analysis methods. Additionally, the use of multiple indicators can be complex and time-consuming, requiring significant resources and expertise to implement effectively.

Overall, the use of multi-dimensional measures of success represents a promising approach to evaluating school performance that can provide a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of school quality. By considering a wider range of factors beyond academic achievement, these measures can help to identify schools that are truly serving the needs of all students and promoting a well-rounded approach to education.

Focusing on individual student growth

In recent years, there has been growing criticism of traditional school rankings, which tend to focus on aggregate measures such as average test scores or college acceptance rates. While these metrics can provide useful information, they do not necessarily reflect the individual needs and abilities of each student. As a result, many educators and policymakers are turning to alternative approaches that focus on individual student growth.

One promising approach is to use student growth percentiles (SGPs) to measure progress over time. SGPs compare a student’s performance to that of their peers with similar prior achievement, rather than to some arbitrary standard or average. This allows for a more nuanced understanding of student progress, and can help identify students who may be falling behind even if they are not scoring at the very top of the distribution.

Another alternative is to use “value-added” models, which estimate the difference between a student’s predicted achievement based on prior scores and other factors, and their actual achievement. These models can provide a more accurate picture of how much progress a student is making, and can help identify effective teachers and interventions.

Both of these approaches have their limitations, and it is important to recognize that no single measure can capture all aspects of student growth or success. However, by focusing on individual student growth rather than aggregate metrics, schools can provide a more personalized and supportive learning environment for each student.

The Future of School Rankings

The role of technology in improving accuracy

In recent years, technology has played a significant role in transforming the education sector. The integration of technology in school rankings has been a game-changer in terms of accuracy and efficiency. With the help of advanced algorithms and machine learning, school rankings can now be generated with greater precision, providing parents and students with more reliable information.

One of the most significant benefits of technology in school rankings is the ability to process large amounts of data quickly and accurately. With the help of data analytics tools, schools can now collect and analyze vast amounts of data related to student performance, teacher effectiveness, and other key metrics. This information can then be used to generate more accurate rankings that take into account a wide range of factors.

Another benefit of technology in school rankings is the ability to account for variations in student demographics and other contextual factors. By using machine learning algorithms, school rankings can now take into account factors such as socioeconomic status, student diversity, and other variables that may impact school performance. This allows for a more nuanced and comprehensive understanding of school quality, providing parents and students with a more complete picture of what to expect from a particular school.

Finally, technology has also made it easier for schools to update their rankings in real-time, ensuring that the information provided is always up-to-date and accurate. This is particularly important in a rapidly changing educational landscape, where new technologies and teaching methods are constantly being developed and implemented. By using technology to generate and update school rankings, schools can ensure that they are providing the most accurate and up-to-date information possible, helping parents and students make informed decisions about their education.

Overall, the role of technology in improving the accuracy of school rankings cannot be overstated. By leveraging advanced algorithms and data analytics tools, schools can now provide parents and students with more reliable and comprehensive information about school quality, helping them make informed decisions about their education.

The importance of stakeholder input

School rankings are not only important for prospective students and their families, but also for educational institutions themselves. In order to ensure that school rankings accurately reflect the quality of education being provided, it is essential to gather input from various stakeholders. This section will discuss the importance of stakeholder input in school rankings.

  • Gathering a Diverse Range of Perspectives: Stakeholder input provides a diverse range of perspectives on the quality of education being provided by a school. This can include input from students, parents, educators, administrators, and community members. Each of these groups has a unique perspective on the strengths and weaknesses of a school, and their input can help to create a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the school’s performance.
  • Promoting Transparency and Accountability: Stakeholder input can also promote transparency and accountability within schools. By gathering input from a wide range of stakeholders, schools can be held accountable for their performance and can be encouraged to improve their practices. This can lead to better outcomes for students and a more positive school culture overall.
  • Informing Decision-Making: Stakeholder input can also inform decision-making at the school and district level. By gathering input from stakeholders, schools and districts can make more informed decisions about resource allocation, program development, and other key areas. This can lead to more effective and efficient use of resources, and can ultimately improve student outcomes.
  • Fostering Collaboration and Engagement: Finally, stakeholder input can foster collaboration and engagement among stakeholders. By involving stakeholders in the school ranking process, schools can build stronger relationships with their communities and create a more collaborative and engaged culture. This can lead to better outcomes for students and a more positive school climate overall.

In conclusion, the importance of stakeholder input in school rankings cannot be overstated. By gathering input from a diverse range of stakeholders, schools can promote transparency and accountability, inform decision-making, and foster collaboration and engagement. This can ultimately lead to better outcomes for students and a more positive school culture overall.

Addressing the limitations of current rankings

Current school rankings have been widely criticized for their limitations, including:

  • Overemphasis on standardized test scores: Current rankings place a heavy emphasis on standardized test scores, such as SAT and ACT scores, which may not accurately reflect the quality of education at a school. This can lead to schools with high test scores being ranked highly, even if they do not provide a well-rounded education.
  • Lack of diversity in data: Many current rankings only consider a limited set of data, such as test scores and graduation rates, which may not fully capture the diversity of experiences and opportunities available at a school. This can lead to schools with strong programs in certain areas being overlooked, while schools with weaker programs in other areas are ranked highly.
  • Limited focus on student outcomes: Current rankings often focus on inputs, such as the number of resources available at a school, rather than outputs, such as the success of students after they graduate. This can lead to schools with strong resources being ranked highly, even if they do not provide students with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in the real world.
  • Lack of transparency: The methods used to create current rankings are often opaque, making it difficult for parents and students to understand how schools are being evaluated. This can lead to mistrust in the rankings and confusion about which schools are truly the best.

In order to address these limitations, future school rankings should consider a broader range of data, including student outcomes, diversity, and community engagement. Additionally, the methods used to create these rankings should be transparent and accessible to the public. By addressing these limitations, future school rankings can provide a more accurate and comprehensive guide for parents and students looking to make informed decisions about their education.

The role of school rankings in education

School rankings have become an increasingly important aspect of the education system, as they provide a way for students, parents, and educators to assess the quality of education offered by different schools. These rankings can be based on a variety of factors, including academic performance, student-teacher ratios, extracurricular activities, and other criteria.

One of the primary roles of school rankings is to help students make informed decisions about which schools to attend. By providing information about the academic performance and other features of different schools, rankings can help students identify schools that are likely to provide them with the education and experiences they need to succeed.

In addition to helping students make informed decisions, school rankings can also provide valuable information to parents and educators. Parents can use rankings to evaluate the quality of education offered by different schools in their area, and educators can use them to identify schools that are succeeding in key areas and those that may need improvement.

Overall, the role of school rankings in education is to provide a way for students, parents, and educators to assess the quality of education offered by different schools and make informed decisions about which schools to attend. By providing valuable information about the academic performance and other features of different schools, rankings can help students, parents, and educators identify schools that are likely to provide the education and experiences they need to succeed.

The need for continued evaluation and improvement

School rankings play a crucial role in providing valuable insights to students, parents, and educators alike. However, it is essential to recognize that these rankings are not static and must continue to evolve and improve to remain relevant and effective. In this section, we will explore the need for continued evaluation and improvement in school rankings.

One of the primary reasons for the need of continued evaluation and improvement in school rankings is the rapidly changing educational landscape. With advancements in technology and shifts in societal values, it is essential to ensure that school rankings are keeping up with these changes and accurately reflecting the current state of education. For instance, the rise of online and blended learning models has necessitated the need for new metrics to be included in school rankings to accurately reflect the quality of education being provided.

Another reason for the need of continued evaluation and improvement in school rankings is the increasing diversity of student populations. Schools are becoming more diverse, with students from a wide range of backgrounds and abilities. This diversity requires that school rankings take into account a broader range of factors to provide a more comprehensive picture of the quality of education being provided. For example, rankings should consider the performance of different student subgroups, such as low-income students and students with disabilities, to ensure that schools are providing equal opportunities for all students to succeed.

Finally, continued evaluation and improvement in school rankings is necessary to ensure that they remain transparent and reliable. Rankings should be based on clear and objective criteria that are consistently applied and easily understood by all stakeholders. This will help to build trust in the rankings and ensure that they are used effectively to improve education outcomes for all students.

In conclusion, the need for continued evaluation and improvement in school rankings is essential to ensure that they remain relevant, effective, and trustworthy. As the educational landscape continues to evolve, it is crucial that school rankings evolve with it to provide the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the quality of education being provided.

The importance of a balanced approach to school rankings

As school rankings continue to play a significant role in shaping educational policy and public perception, it is essential to consider the importance of adopting a balanced approach to their use. A balanced approach acknowledges the benefits of school rankings while also recognizing their limitations and potential drawbacks. This comprehensive guide explores the importance of adopting a balanced approach to school rankings in the future.

One of the primary reasons for adopting a balanced approach to school rankings is to ensure that they are used as a tool for improvement rather than a punitive measure. By recognizing the limitations of rankings and avoiding the pitfalls of simplistic comparisons, schools can use rankings to identify areas for improvement and target resources more effectively.

Another reason for adopting a balanced approach is to prevent the creation of a one-size-fits-all approach to education. Rankings should not be used to promote a particular educational philosophy or approach, as this can stifle innovation and creativity in the classroom. Instead, rankings should be used to provide a broad overview of school performance, allowing educators and policymakers to make informed decisions about how to improve education outcomes for all students.

Furthermore, a balanced approach to school rankings recognizes the importance of considering a wide range of factors beyond academic performance. This includes factors such as student wellbeing, extracurricular activities, and community engagement, which are essential components of a well-rounded education. By considering these factors, school rankings can provide a more holistic view of school performance, helping to create a more balanced and equitable education system.

Finally, a balanced approach to school rankings acknowledges the need for ongoing evaluation and refinement. As the education landscape continues to evolve, it is essential to ensure that school rankings remain relevant and useful. This requires ongoing consultation with educators, policymakers, and other stakeholders to ensure that rankings are providing meaningful insights into school performance and are being used effectively to drive improvements in education outcomes.

In conclusion, adopting a balanced approach to school rankings is essential for ensuring that they are used as a tool for improvement rather than a punitive measure. By recognizing the limitations of rankings and avoiding the pitfalls of simplistic comparisons, schools can use rankings to identify areas for improvement and target resources more effectively. A balanced approach also acknowledges the importance of considering a wide range of factors beyond academic performance and recognizes the need for ongoing evaluation and refinement to ensure that rankings remain relevant and useful in the future.

FAQs

1. Why do we rank schools?

School rankings are a way to evaluate and compare schools based on various factors such as academic performance, student diversity, and other important criteria. Rankings provide a standardized measure of school quality that can help parents, students, and educators make informed decisions about education. By ranking schools, it becomes easier to identify top-performing institutions and areas that need improvement.

2. What factors are considered in school rankings?

There are several factors that are considered when ranking schools, including academic performance, graduation rates, student-teacher ratios, extracurricular activities, and diversity. Some rankings also take into account factors such as safety, resources, and reputation. The specific factors considered may vary depending on the ranking system used.

3. Are school rankings accurate and reliable?

School rankings can be accurate and reliable, but they also have limitations. Rankings are based on data and metrics, which can sometimes be incomplete or misleading. Additionally, rankings may not always reflect the unique needs and circumstances of individual students or schools. It’s important to use rankings as one tool among many when evaluating schools and making decisions about education.

4. How can I find school rankings?

School rankings are available from a variety of sources, including government agencies, private organizations, and online resources. Some popular sources of school rankings include U.S. News & World Report, Washington Post, and Newsweek. It’s important to carefully research and evaluate the methods and criteria used by each ranking system before using them to make decisions about education.

5. What are the benefits of school rankings?

School rankings can provide a number of benefits, including helping parents and students make informed decisions about education, promoting competition and innovation among schools, and encouraging schools to improve their performance. Rankings can also raise awareness about important issues in education and help identify areas where reform is needed.

6. Are there any drawbacks to school rankings?

School rankings can also have drawbacks, including oversimplifying complex issues, ignoring important factors, and creating unrealistic expectations. Rankings may also incentivize schools to focus on test scores and other metrics at the expense of other important factors, such as student well-being. It’s important to use rankings as one tool among many when evaluating schools and making decisions about education.

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